The scientific resultsof all the above research topics have direct implications for our society as they are related to the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the cryosphere and the biosphere. The temperature in the North Atlantic is expected to rise in the near future. Changes in the hydrological cycle are expected as a consequence, with changes in precipitation, and therefore river- and groundwater flow and glacier mass balance; amount and type (rain/snow) and spatial distribution of precipitation. Changes in the surface area of glaciers, vegetation cover, and deserts, will have important effects on the environment. Future changes of the ocean circulation around Iceland will play a crucial part in the ecology of the fish stocks, the occurrence of sea ice, and the climate conditions in general.
· The impact of climate change on utilization of glacio-hydrological and geothermal resources, and groundwater systems supplying water for domestic and industrial use.
· The impact of climate change on crustal uplift, vegetation, soil erosion, soil organic carbon, coastline changes and sea level rise.
· The quality of air and water (pollution), concentration of greenhouse gasses, sediment flux to the ocean (including nutrition).
· Geo-hazards threatening inhabited regions, damaging vegetation and soils, and disrupting the Icelandic road and aviation system.
· Particulate matter pollution